Fall 2018 Seminars

The Civil and Environmental Engineering Department seminar series is held on two Wednesdays a month from 4:00-4:50 pm in the Classroom Building, CB204W. The SD Mines and engineering community are welcome to attend. Professional development hour (PDH) certificates will be mailed to attendees upon request for the seminars noted below. For more information, contact Jim Stone (james.stone@sdsmt.edu).

Fall 2018

Wednesday, November 28, 2018

Time: 4:00PM Location: CB 204W

Title: “3D Integration of ZnO and ZnO:N TFT Device Using Flexible Polyamide Substrate”   
Presenter: Abu Naser Rashid Reza, PhD candidate, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, SD Mines 

Abstract: To compete with the Moor’s law the demand of high performance and scaled device is increasing in the present day’s world of semiconductor. As scaling of devices is almost at its saturation edge, the need for new innovative technologies for semiconductor device integration is coming as well. 3D integration of active devices can be an alternate solution and technology for integration of devices, as it can exploits the possibility of roaming into the vertical direction. Using conventional Si-metal as substrate and making 3D devices like TSV process or Monolithic process, showing lots of limitations like reliability or high temperature fabrication procedures, high power consumption and high-volume area is needed for the devices. On the other hand, using thin polymer substrate for making FET device and use it for 3D integration might make the scaling of device much more easily. In this research, 3D integration was conducted through stacking of ZnO FETs and ZnO:N FETs over each other by using thin flexible polyamide substrate. Because of ZnO having a relatively large direct band gap at room temperature, the high electron mobility, high thermal conductivity, transparency and flexibility, it was a good choice for making channels in FET devices. Also ZnO and ZnO:N can be easily deposited using ALD over Polyamide with very low temperature without affecting the polyamide. So here Polyamide was use as substrate because of having high glass transition temperature, it can sustain at elevated temperature during subsequent fabrication procedure. And another major importance of thin thickness of polyamide was used which allow us for making easy stacking and connections. But initially we needed a solid rigid substrate to white stand all the fabrication handling and movement of the device. For this purpose, bare Si wafer is used as rigid substrate. At first, commercial liquid polyamide was spin coated on rigid Si substrate. After curing the polyamide ZnO FET device was made over the polyamide substrate. After finishing the 1st layer of TFT device, again polyamide was spin coated on 1st layer device and then 2nd layer device was fabricated on that. To ensure the difference of the electrical properties 2nd layer device was made using ZnO:N as channel. To get the connection for the bottom layer some specific areas of the top layer were etch and electrical connections were ensuring for the bottom layer. And finally, the electrical measurements were taken. From the electrical measurement it was clearly visible that both the top layer and bottom layer device is working properly and individually. To ensure the reliability of the devices, again the stack devices were made but in reverse manner, like this time in 1st layer ZnO:N was used as channel and in 2nd layer ZnO as channel. Same kind of electrical properties were found.

Title: “An Analysis of Fluvial Geomorphology Parameters Affecting Meander Migration and Dynamic Equilibrium of the White River in Arkansas ”   
Presenter: Linh Duong, PhD candidate, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, SD Mines 

Abstract: An analysis of a multitude of fluvial and morphological parameters was conducted to assess the current stability conditions of various White River reaches and to accentuate the contributions imparted by these parameters to the internal processes that governed the dynamic equilibrium within these reaches. The initial step involved the extractions and computations of pertinent fluvial and morphological parameters from the HEC-RAS Model and ArcGIS. Channel stability assessment emphasized three methodologies, namely stability assessment through parametric correlations between fluvial and morphological parameters; stability evaluation with the Rosgen Stream Classification System; and stability estimation through sediment analyses and sediment related parametric correlations. Morphological assessment implementing the Rosgen Stream Classification (RSC) system consisted of four inventory levels of classification. Sediment analyses conducted by implementing several sediment transport functions utilized the dominant bed materials attained from sieve analyses of approximately seven hundred soil samples collected from the channels of various ‘reference’ reaches.

Title: “A Case Study of Soil Stabilization Treatments for the Purpose of Erosion Control and Vegetation Rehabilitation on Three Sites of Differing Types of Disturbed Soils”  
Presenter: Tasha Hodges, PhD candidate, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, SD Mines 

Abstract: During July and August of 2018 field tests were conducted by applying chemical and physical soil stabilization treatments at three sites with different soil problems.  The first site was located at the Rapid City Landfill with soils that have a pH of around 3.0 and in which vegetation is difficult to grow.  The second site was located in Custer State Park in an area burned by the Legion Lake Fire of December 2017 and again burned in early 2018 in a slash pile burn.  The third site was located along I-90 near mile marker 60 in Rapid City, South Dakota.  The site consists of soils that are eroded by wind, water and passing traffic and the SDDOT has tried various methods for rehabilitation with little to no vegetation growth.  Each site had 15 plots that were 32 SF (4x8) and had 15 SF (3x5) treated to reduce the chance of contamination between sites. The longer dimension ran parallel to the slope.  In this case study the soil stabilization treatment tested as a use in land rehabilitation is a biogeotechnology called Microbial Induced Calcite Precipitation (MICP).  The method works by binding the degraded soil matrix with calcite until the vegetation can recover.  The plots were analyzed using shear strength, unconfined compressive strength, vegetation growth, soil temperature, barometric pressure and qualitative erosion resistance. The three sites showed conflicting data and a more thorough investigation is needed to determine if this technology is an acceptable method for enhancing land rehabilitation efforts.

Wednesday, November 14, 2018

Time: 4:00PM Location: CB 204W

Title: “Development of a soil temperature assimilation capability within the NASA Land Information System ”  
Presenter: John Eylander, MS candidate, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences Program, SD Mines

Abstract: Computing surface energy budget is one of the many important functions of land surface hydrology models, using the results to estimate sensible and latent surface heat fluxes for climate and weather modeling, as well as generating estimates of soil moisture, surface runoff, and a number of other products .  The weather and climate modeling community uses Global Land Data Assimilation Systems (GLDAS) to gather, compute, and integrate the necessary inputs to drive the land surface model computations.  One such system, the NASA Land Information System, has the capability to assimilate satellite-measured surface properties using a variety of assimilation techniques including ensemble Kalman filtering, extended Kalman filtering, and a number of optimal interpolation techniques as a way of updating land surface model state predicted variables, and has operationalized methods to assimilate soil moisture measurements generated from satellites using the ensemble Kalman filter to improve the computation of surface soil moisture estimates that are largely driven by weather and surface energy computations.  However, while soil moisture has long been a target for the assimilation community improving the estimate of soil temperature and evapotranspiration via assimilation has lagged.  The goal of this presentation will be to provide an overview of the soil/surface temperature assimilation capability we propose to develop, describe the GLDAS configuration and land surface hydrology model we plan to use, and state the desired outcomes from the research effort.

Title: "Modeling the Hydrological Impact of a Dynamic Land Cover Change for the Black Hills Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak”   
Presenter: Patrick Shaw, PhD candidate, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, SD Mines 

Abstract: The response of streamflow to land cover changes due to mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae) infestation within the Black Hills of western South Dakota is being investigated. The upper Rapid Creek watershed study area includes three USGS stream gauge stations with 40 years of data. This rainfall-dominated watershed land uses are in flux as a result of MPB, fire, and forest management. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center (EROS) National Land Cover Datasets (NLCD) from 2011 was correlated with the EROS Continuous Change Detection Classification (CCDC). The CCDC process does not currently differentiate change areas based on impact type, so the United States Forest Service (USFS) MPB, burned vegetation, and managed forest areas were used to create a composite land cover change dataset for 2009 through 2016. A regression analysis was conducted on the USFS MPB and managed area with the CCDC ChangeMAP which was performed on twenty-eight subbasins in the Black Hills, within and outside of the contributing area of the upper Rapid Creek watershed. The results demonstrated a significant correlation between the CCDC ChangeMAP to the USFS shapefiles. Yearly dynamic parameters for each land segment were used to simulate the land cover change within Hydrological Simulation Program – Fortran (HSPF). Streamflow variations were linked to periods of high and low precipitation and land cover change over time. A modeling tool is being further calibrated to aide in the time-variable hydrologic parameterization of land cover change for input into HSPF. The hydrologic response to the 2009 through 2015 MPB infestation years will be presented.

Wednesday, October 31, 2018

Time: 4:00PM Location: CB 204W

Title: “Evaluating Geomorphic Characteristics of Remotely Classified River Systems in the US Great Basin”   
Presenter: John Costello, PhD candidate, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, SD Mines 

Abstract: Rivers are often defined as linear, continuous structures that increase in size in the downstream direction, however, recent studies have questioned whether this concept adequately accounts for the discontinuities caused by natural variation and human influence. Alternatives to the River Continuum Concept (RCC), a downstream gradient, call for a discontinuum or patches. Functional Process Zones (FPZs) can be used to classify these patches. For this study, FPZs were classified and mapped along three rivers in the Great Basin (USA) using a GIS protocol. River reaches within the resulting FPZs were sampled based on the modified EMAP protocol to test whether significant hydrogeomorphic differences existed across scales, including between FPZs, within a single watershed, and among watersheds in the Great Basin region. Our study reveals both a substantial amount of internal complexity among FPZs within a river and consistency in the morphological nature of FPZs between rivers within an ecoregion. 

Title: “Feasibility Study to evaluate use of thermophilic fermentation, bio-electrochemical and membrane module to reduce energy consumption of municipal wastewater treatment and reuse in power plants ”   
Presenter: Bhuvan Vemuri, PhD candidate, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, SD Mines   

Abstract: Thermal power plants comprise 86% of the total fresh water withdrawals in the United States alone. Municipal wastewater is an alternative to freshwater sources to meet the needs of thermal power plants. In our earlier study, we demonstrated that a sequential treatment train based on a bio-electrochemical module (BEM) and ultra-filtration unit can treat wastewater under ambient conditions. The BEM was based on a microbial fuel cell (MFC) reactor. Here we present an approach for improving efficiency of BEM by integrating the following: (i) a thermophilic fermentation (ii) a thermophilic BEM, and (iii) an ultra-filtration module. The first stage uses a thermophilic, anaerobic microbial consortia for generating hydrogen from chemical oxygen demand (COD) in wastewater. We achieved 80% COD removal from the wastewater within 7 days of batch experiments. Our ongoing studies will evaluate the feasibility of treating the thermophilic fermentation effluent in MFCs and further polishing it in an ultrafiltration module. This three staged processes is expected to yield an energy efficient method for enabling wastewater reuse in power plants.    

Wednesday, October 17, 2018

Time: 4:00PM Location: CB 204W 

Title: “A Site Scale Integrated Decision Support Tool for Urban Stormwater Management”   
Presenter: Ali Shojaei Zadeh, PhD candidate, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, SD Mines   

Abstract: The objective of this research is to develop of a planning-level, site scale integrated decision support tool (site scale i-DST) for grey and green stormwater infrastructure. The site scale i-DST has several component modules integrated into a single tool. The component modules include runoff estimation module, water quality module, BMP cost module, and an optimization module. Several of the more complex stormwater tools require expertise to build and operate. The site scale i-DST is built on accessible platform (Microsoft Excel VBA) and can be operated with a minimum skillset. It is based on readily available data and provides a comparative analysis among various scenarios for BMP selection, sizing, cost, and performance. Site scale i-DST is fully automated optimization tool that selects BMPs based on input data such as quality and quantity of stormwater, target water quality, runoff reduction requirements, and technical and economic criteria. It was demonstrated through scenario evaluation that the tool recommended cost effective BMPs. The tool is flexible allowing user interaction through a graphical user interface. Users can change BMP selection criteria and weights, include or exclude BMP types from the selection process depending on site specific criteria. The tool includes a hydrologic module for simulation of runoff on event and continuous basis. The site scale i-DST is intended for designers, regulators, and municipalities for quick analysis of scenarios involving the interaction of several factors. The output includes most effective BMP(s) with respect to the technical and economic criteria which meets target water quality and flow reduction requirements.

Title: "Ecological response to drought for Northern Great Plains streams"
Presenter:  Charles Jason Tinant, PhD candidate, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, SD Mines

Abstract: An inherent challenge to effective watershed management is that aquatic communities are reliant on streamflow that varies in time and space.  A second challenge is the management of water resources among stakeholders as overall water resources demand increases, as a result of an increasing human population and per person water use, and water resources (ground water) availability declines. These related challenges are most pressing during times of drought.  The emergent topic of ecological drought provides a context to link aquatic communities with hydrologic process.  I plan to contribute to our understanding of ecological drought by testing the hypothesis that drought is a key driver of macroinvertebrate community regime shift in Northern Great Plains streams and incorporate study results into the Oglala Sioux Tribe watershed protection plan.   I propose to use standardized climate indices (standardized precipitation index, SPI, and streamflow runoff index, SRI) and Gridded Soil Survey Geographic (gSSURGO) data to: 1) identify the extent to which hydrologic drought onset lags the onset of precipitation drought for watersheds with different geologies within Pine Ridge Reservation administrative boundaries, and 2) downscale streamflow records from gauged stream segments to ungauged watersheds.  Next, I will identify abiotic drivers of macroinvertebrate community regime shift using non-metric dimensional scaling (NMS) to identify abiotic gradients, compare community structure differences for non-drought and drought years using permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA), and identify drought-resilient species using indicator species analysis.  Quantification of drought intensity on aquatic community regime shifts has not been well studied, and results are potentially impactful to the water resources community because they represent a novel approach to link the natural flow regime into Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) metric determination.  My CEE 790 seminar will focus on describing operational drought types, standardized climate indices, and results from identifying historical and recent precipitation and hydrologic droughts in south-central South Dakota.  

Wednesday, October 3, 2018

Title: “Determination of the potential for detection and monitoring of salinity/solicity impacts in agricultural lands using remote sensing”   
Presenter: Patrick Kozak, MS candidate, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences  
Time: 4:00PM Location: CB 204W  

Abstract:  The Williston Basin in Northwestern Great Plains is a principle source of oil, gas, and coal production for the United States since the 1950s. One of the byproducts of oil and gas extraction in this region is highly saline brines. Surface releases and spills of these brines cause changes in soil salinity that can go undetected through traditional methods while degrading grassland productivity, altering native plant communities/diversity, and allowing a foothold for invasive species. These leaks can come from any portion of the extraction system including but not limited to wells, pipelines, storage structures, and even containment ponds. Small releases of brine have a cumulative effect on the surrounding soils and grasses in the region by changing localized salinity thereby becoming an abiotic stressor. As an abiotic stressor there is the potential for the use of remotely sensed imagery to detect change in vegetative health in regions of high alkalinity versus unaffected vegetation. The goal of this NASA EPSCoR funded project is to determine the feasibility as well as the spatial, spectral and temporal resolution at which remotely sensed data can detect vegetation stress from impact of brine releases and also the potential to differentiate from natural and agricultural related impacts. The project will leverage higher resolution remotely sensed imagery to classify a business and usual and then subsequent change from brine releases and natural impacts. The approach will be to focus on change detection based on vegetation and salt indices, soils, and infrastructure data. Locations for this work will be from the Williston Basin in North Dakota and agricultural fields in Eastern South Dakota. The final outcome is to develop a remote methodology to identify and monitor brine spills in grasslands or agricultural systems that would otherwise go undocumented.  

Wednesday, September 19, 2018

Title: “Application of Spatial Variability Principles in Assessing Performance of Civil Infrastructure"”   
Presenter: Dr. Tejo V. Bheemasetti, Assistant Professor, Civil & Environmental Engineering, SD Mines 
Time: 4:00PM Location: CB 204W  

Abstract:  The geotechnical performance of a civil infrastructure primarily relies on the behavior of the subsurface soils including material and behavioral characterization in response to different loading and climatic conditions. Interpreting the soil behavior is a challenging problem for engineers owing to the spatial heterogeneity of soils and uncertainties associated with geotechnical engineering practices. These variations and uncertainties make it necessary for engineers to contemplate new techniques and methods to analyze soil properties and comprehend their generalized behaviors and patterns. Existing research in variability analysis tends to focus on the distribution of soil properties, reliability-based design, and simulation of random fields. Despite advances in probabilistic and statistical analysis, many challenges remain in fundamental material characterization and using risk-based principles in practical designs. Consequently, the aim of this research is to develop a framework for incorporating the risk principles in characterizing soils and interpreting their properties in prediction analysis, and how it could be applies to assess the resilience of a civil infrastructure. This seminar will present key results and methodology developed to evaluate the spatial variability in soil properties and its application to a pipeline project. The conceived approach has significant potential to integrate the principles of risk and reliability to enhance resiliency assessments of critical civil infrastructure.  

Wednesday, September 5, 2018

Title: “Laser Produced Plasmas for Quantitative Analysis: Fundamentals and Applications”  
Presenter: Dr. Prasoon Diwakar, Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering, SD Mines
Time: 4:00PM Location: CB 204W 

Abstract:  Laser produced plasma play a central role in various analytical methods and techniques for chemical analysis and microanalysis including Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Laser Ablation-inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD), Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUV) and laser spectroscopy. For laser-produced plasma based techniques to emerge as efficient and accurate quantitative analytical techniques, understanding of fundamental processes involved in laser-material interaction, plasma formation, plume expansion and plasma-material interaction is very important. This talk will emphasize on recent research in each of these aspects of laser produced plasmas in the context of relevant physical processes that determine accurate analytical response for quantitative analysis. Several unique and novel applications of laser produced plasmas are presented with applications ranging from ambient air monitoring to carcinogen detection to nuclear material applications to biomedical applications.